Learning to Interact Optimizes Neurons

The LION prospective, longitudinal cohort was established in 2012 to explore the consequences of early traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social and cognitive skills in preschoolers. Participants were followed over more than 5 years.


  • Age: 18 months to 6 years at recruitment
  • 109 children with TBI
  • 71 children with orthopedic injuries
  • 86 typically developing controls


  • Neuropsychological Assessment
  • Actigraphy, genetics, parent-child interactions, behavioral questionnaires


  • CHU Sainte-Justine and Greater Montreal Area

Key Results

Multiple findings have been published on this cohort.

A TBI experienced in infancy can alter a child's behavior, temperament, adaptive functioning, and social cognition, as well as parent-child relationships.